Proto-Norse (Ancient Nordic, Old Scandinavian) was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved as a northern dialect of Proto-Germanic over the first centuries CE. It is the earliest stage of a characteristically North Germanic language, and the language attested in the oldest Scandinavian Elder Futhark inscriptions, spoken ca. from the 2nd to 8th centuries.
Conjugate a Proto-Norse Verb
Runic alphabet also called Futhark, writing system of uncertain origin used by Germanic peoples of northern Europe, Britain, Scandinavia, and Iceland from about the 3rd century to the 16th or 17th century AD. Runic writing appeared rather late in the history of writing and is clearly derived from one of the alphabets of the Mediterranean area. Because of its angular letter forms, however, and because early runic inscriptions were written from right to left like the earliest alphabets, runic writing seems to belong to a more ancient system.
Scholars have attempted to derive it from the Greek or Latin alphabets, either capitals or cursive forms, at any period from the 6th century BC to the 5th century AD. A likely theory is that the runic alphabet was developed by the Goths, a Germanic people, from the Etruscan alphabet of northern Italy and was perhaps also influenced by the Latin alphabet in the 1st or 2nd century BC. Two inscriptions, the Negau and the Maria Saalerberg inscriptions, written in Etruscan script in a Germanic language and dating from the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, respectively, give credence to the theory of Etruscan origins for runic. [source: ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA]
- Buck, Carl D.. Elementarbuch der Oskisch-Umbrischen Dialekte. Sammlung Indogermanischer Lehrbücher. Carl Winter's Universitätsbuchhandlung. Heidelberg, Germany, 1905.
- Jóhannesson, Alexander. Grammatik der Urnordischen Runeninschriften. Germanische Bibliothek. Carl Winter's Universitätsbuchhandlung. Heidelberg, 1923.