Icelandic is the national language of Iceland. It is spoken by 250,000 people in Iceland. It's a Germanic language.
Some of the Icelandic characters don't exist in the English alphabet. If you can't input them here - try the following:
|To Get||Enter||Sample Verbs|
|á||a/||a/lita equals álita|
|ö||o:||so:kkva equals sökkva|
|ð||d/||verd/a equals verða|
|þ||tH||tHvo equals þvo|
Icelandic verbs are divided in weak and strong verbs. In addition to these two main groups, there are reduplicating verbs and irregular verbs.
A. Weak verbs
The past tense of weak verbs is formed by adding a dental suffix (t, d, ) between the stem and personal ending. There are four groups of weak verbs:
1. Verbs ending in -ja: spyrja.
2. Stemvowel front (e, i, y, , , ei, ey, ): beina, heyra, klippa.
3. Stemvowel back (a, , o, , , also , u, i): ora, loða.
4. Past tense -ai in 1st person singular: kalla.
B. Strong verbs
The past tense of strong verbs is formed with a change in the stem vowel. There are seven groups of strong verbs:
1. Vowel change ( í> ei): bíta.
2. Vowel change (jó, jú, > au): sjóða, smjúga, lúta.
3. Vowel change (e, in > a): hvella, spinna.
4. Vowel change (e > a): nema.
5. Vowel change (e, i > a): gefa, biðja.
6. Vowel change (e > ó): fara.
C. Reduplicating verbs
The past of these verbs was originally formed by reduplication of the first syllable. (Cf. Gothic haitan)
1. Vowel change (ei > ; au > j ; a > ; > ): heita, auka, falla, láta.
2. Vowel change ( , > er): gróa, snúa.